英文論文寫作要訣

 --- 劉逸萍 教授 ---

 

       凡是英文寫作考試都是一種在壓力下 Under Stress 的考試在一定的時間 Time字數 Number of Words 及內容 Content 展現考生之寫作能力 Writing Competence考生應針對所要求之字數內容在一定之時間內寫成一篇論文所以考生平時練習應分成:字數與時間練習 內容與寫作技巧提升之練習

       另外一篇好的英文論文除了內容正確外必須要以 講求變化 Variety “ 多用成語 Expressions” show 英文寫作程度 Writing Competence而英文寫作之基礎在 造句 Syntax”英文句子結構與中文句子最大之不同在於動詞 Verb之時態 Tense 及語氣 Voice同時英文寫作特別重視 句子之連結所以 句子連結法 Sentence Connection” 應多加練習以求達到 清晰 Clearness”連貫 Transition”簡明 Conciseness” 強調 Emphasis” 修詞 Rhetoric 要求以下數點可供平時練習之重點

 一、寫作速度訓練 -- 字數與時間練習

         托福 iBT 的寫作有兩篇一篇 Independent Writing 要在30分鐘寫300另一篇 Integrated Writing 20分鐘 225基本上類似之英文寫作考試大約每10分鐘寫80-100例如GRE 的論文 an Analysis of an Issue時間為45分鐘所以要寫 450–500 GEPT 時間20分鐘要寫 150-200以上之時間與字數必須符合規定否則將影響成績

 

            基於此速度訓練是非常重要亦即英文打字或手寫的速度要快如以每5個字母為一字300個字即是1500個字母也是一分鐘要 key in 50個字母以如此速度平常必須勤加練習否則縱使有 滿肚子的英文也寫() 不出來所以考生平時練習必須先對著手錶30分鐘內針對一個特定的題目不考慮文法修詞拼字一口氣寫350–400如果能達到要求再重新檢查文法修詞拼字加以改進最後能夠在一定的時間之內寫出一篇沒有或很少有文法修詞錯誤之論文

 

二、英文寫作能力訓練 -- 文法修詞與內容練習

         論文 Essay是由句子 Sentences Paragraphs 結合而成以合乎邏輯 Logic 的論說 Reasoning表達作者 Writer 的觀點 Argument所以任何寫作考試都要求 文要對題要有組織要有系統所以內容練習非常重要內容練習包括:

1.      認識題目及了解題目之要求

            托福題目可以清楚看出 AgreeDisagree Choice GREGMAT Issue 題目及 Argument 的題目則較難看懂所以對類似之題目要勤加練習務必了解題目問什麽再回答什麼

    2.      以段落控制內容以段落控制字數

               一篇文章第一段為 引言段 Introduction” 要表明立場最後一段為 結論段

               Conclusion” 要總結立場觀點其中第二四段則是以舉例 Example

               由 Reason 來支持立場所以如要寫300就分成4-5 Paragraphs每段

                80–100以每句10字計算每段寫8–10如此規劃則可以句子數

                Sentence 來控制字數及時間再以段落 Paragraphs 來控制內容討論之要點

                如此就可以在 一定的時間一定的寫作要求寫出一篇論文

    3.      加强文法修詞練習提升英文寫作能力

               英文文法及修詞是英文寫作的基礎必須靠不斷的學習文法規則修詞原

               才能提升英文寫作能力英文文法”--主要是 詞類與句型之學習與熟

               英文修詞” – 主要是要求 Effectiveness”最重要之原則有 清晰法

               Clearness連貫法 Transition簡明法 Conciseness 及強調法 Emphasis”在著作

                高級英文修辭寫作中均有簡要之說明同學必須切實研讀每次練習寫作

               完畢除了自行訂正外最好請英文老師就 文法與修詞方面批改講解

               才能進步否則閉門造車英文永遠無法提升

 

三、 講求變化 Variety多用成語 Expressions

          一篇好的英文寫作除了內容 Content 必須要 講求變化及多用成語

          在造句 Syntax 及詞類 Parts of Speech 上講求變化同時要多用一些慣用語

          Expressions以便寫出來的英文像 英文 

1.      講求變化 Variety

                  在一篇文章中要講求:每個句子開頭之變化 Variety of the Beginning of a

                  Sentence以及句型之變化 Variety of Sentence Patterns 所以每篇文章都要檢

                  視一下是否有形容詞子句名詞子句副詞子句是否有分詞片語介詞片

                  動詞片語?每個句子是否都是以主詞 Subject 開頭而沒有變化?本書第

                  四章各節均有詳細說明請參考 

         

         例: The doubts center on Mr. Wolfowitz’s role as a leading advocate of the

             American invasion of Iraq, with many critics contending that his real 

             on corruption reminds them of what they say was his messianic but 

             unrealistic faith that installing democracy by force in Iraq, and by 

             other means through the Middle East, would bring stability to the 

             region.  (The New York Times).

             

             以上僅有一個主句 Main Clause “ The doubts center on Mr. Wolfowitz’ role as …”

             但有子句片語等各種結構所以好的英文必須要 講求變化而不是簡單

             Simple Sentences

 

    2.      多用成語 Expression

                  所謂成語並不是 名言,名句而是 Expressions又稱為 慣用語包括:

                  動詞片語 Verb Phrase字動詞 Two-word Verbs三字動詞 Three-word Verbs

                  及介詞片語 Preposition Phrase形容詞片語 Adjective Phrase 每次寫完論文

                  檢查一下是否有上述各項之成語?平常應有系統的背誦常用之

                  Expression本書附錄列有一些片語 Phrases可以參考背誦

 

                例: A new menace has come in the form of a breakaway Tamil rebel faction,

                  widely accused of being allied with the government. (The New York 

                  Time 11/20/06)

 

                   以上一個 Simple Sentence用3個 Phrases以顯示 Variety

 

                               Running from the bridge is a smooth 210-kilometer road built by Mr. 

                         Ge’s team that connects Kratie, a village to the south of Stung Treng, to 

                         the Loatian border. (The New York Times 9/25/06)

                         

                   以上主句為倒裝句過去分詞片語形容詞子句

 

四、造句 Syntax 應注意事項:

         寫論文必須要會造句雖然有各種不同之句型 Sentence Patterns但每個句子的基本結構都是

 

         主詞 Subject + 動詞 Verb + (受詞 Object)

 

所以先想好你要寫的中文句子的意義再決定何者為主詞 Subject何者為動

Verb按照英文文法規則寫出來千萬不要以中文的意義來逐字寫下去!

否則一定是 Broken English

 

1.    決定主詞 Subject

無論主句 Main Clause 或子句 Dependent Clause一定先找出主詞 Subject

般主詞都是名詞 Noun代名詞 Pronoun避免用動名詞 Gerund 不定詞

Infinitive如找不到主詞時考慮用 “It” 的虛字用法如有一句中文:

 

  在一個句子中要找出一個主詞來是不困難

   似乎找不到一個名詞來作主詞

   

   如果寫成:

   “In a sentence, finding a subject is difficult.”

     

   “In a sentence, to find a subject is difficult.”

   雖然文法是對的但不好可用 “It” 的虛字來寫

 

   “It is not difficult to find a subject in a sentence.”

        如此不僅 而且因為 “it 虛字用法 高級用法

 

2.     決定主詞 Subject 再決定句中的 動詞 Verb

每一個句子都要有動詞 Verb” 如果不能確定你所用的字是動詞時一定要

查字典如果詞類 Parts of Speech 用錯了是大錯如果動詞錯了整個句子

就錯了動詞如能使用 Two-word verb Three-word verb 更好但是一定要確

信能寫 本書附錄有些重要的動詞片語可供參考動詞決定後還要注

意動詞的 四字訣” – Person Number Tense Voice其中最容易錯

的是 時態 語氣

 

(1) 時態 Tense

決定動詞時態 雖然有許多文法規則但只要注意兩個要點就可以決定要用

什麼時態了:

 

(1-1) 句子本身之時間

                        例: Every November, thousands of young South Africans troop to school 

                         to be seated on what they have learned in 12 years of education.

                   例: He was not seized with the idea of completing his matriculation until

                         1999.

 

                       (1-2) 其他句子之時態

                        例: Born in 1921 in what is now southern Zimbarbwe, Mr. Chauke lived too 

                         far from school to learn to read or write.

                   例: One might reasonably ask why an 84-year-old believes he needs to pass 

                         matrics.

 

首先要注意所要寫的中文是 論說文 “敘述文

論說文 大部份用 現在簡單式現在完成式 未來簡單式

                            叙述文 過去的敘述用 過去式不變的事實習慣用 現在式

                                            如文中有 自從一直到現在考慮用 現在完成式

 

                (2) 語氣 Voice就是 主動 Active Voice” “被動 Passive Voice”

 

                              主動的句型: 主詞 + 及物動詞 + 受詞

              即主動有 受詞 Object”

 

                        被動的句型:主詞 + Be 動詞 + 及物動詞的過去分詞 x 受詞

          即被動沒有 受詞 Object”要注意 “Be 動詞的人時變化及主詞與動   

          詞之關係:

 

                             例如要將下面一句寫成英文:

 

          昨天           晚上桌子搬到教室去了

 

                              就必須要注意主詞與動詞之關係決定是被動的關係所以寫出下面的句子:

 

                              “Desks were moved into the classroom last night.”

 

       (3) 注意不要犯:雙重動詞 Double Verb 重否定 Double Negation

 

雙重動詞:

錯: There are some people think that it is good to respect others.

對: There are some people who think it is good to respect others.

        錯: He wanted me believe (that) he was innocent.

        對: He wanted me to believe (that) he was innocent.

 

雙重否定:

錯: Nobody doesn’t love his country.

對: There is nobody but loves his country.

         There is nobody who does not love his country.

 

          (4) 注意主詞與動詞之關係是否合理

             除了表現 譬喻語” Figure of Speech 主詞必須有動詞之動作能力否則即

             為不合理即是錯誤

 

             對: Oil and cash buy friends around the world. (The New York Times)

                      At U.S. boarders, laptops have no right to privacy.

             主詞不一能要是 要具有 動詞的功能其他的 一樣能做

             主詞

                  

             錯: Residual areas can build buildings and roads. (學生作業)

                   (剩下的地區可以興建大樓與道路)

             主詞 residual areas 沒有 build 的能力所以是錯的

             改正: Buildings and roads can be built on residual areas.

 

             錯: The areas on the ground can construct other roads. (學生作業)

                   (在地面的地區可以建築其他的道路)

              主詞 the areas 沒有 construct 的能力所以是錯的

              改正:The areas on the ground can be utilized to construct other roads.

 

             錯: Dialing to friends who are far away can talk more current situation or arrange3

                       schedule for next meeting directly. (學生作業)

              主詞 dialing to friends 沒有 talk 的能力所以是錯的

              改正:By dialing friends who are far away, we can talk about some current 

                          situations or arrange the next meeting directly.

 

              The trait of modern communication is required to serve as soon as possible. 

                       (學生作業)

              上句主詞與動詞 the trait is required to serve 不合理

              改正:The trait of modern communication is that information is required to serve as

                          soon as possible.

 

           (5) 注意使用助動詞 Auxiliary Verb

             助動詞除了表達時態外還可以表示客氣能力容許可能假設等各

                種語氣 (參看附錄)

                所以助動詞用對了可以加強語氣用錯了反而造成相反的效果

           

              錯:Younger people are more adaptable than older ones, and hence a supervisor 

                     who decides to reform the company would recruit young people.

               句中 would 是表假設可能性低於 50%甚至 0%就句子之意義是 100%

               的可能性所以要用 will

               對: …, and hence a supervisor … will recruit young people.

 

3.      注意句子連結 Sentence Connection

         決定句子後再按照句子與句子之間之關係作複合句 Compound Sentence

         複雜句 Complex Sentence Compound & Complex Sentence不要全部都寫成簡

         單句 Simple Sentence應要以句子之關係來決定何者為主句 Main Clause何者

         為子句 Dependent Clause ?

 

        例如:下面兩個簡單句 Simple Sentence各自獨立沒有重點

                       Some species of whales are nearing extinction.

                  Many countries refuse to accept even a partial ban on whale 

                  hunting.

.

                      可按照兩句之意義連結兩句為一句複雜句 Complex Sentence

                     Although some species of whales are nearing extinction, many 

                 countries refuse to accept even a partial ban on whale hunting.

                     或:

                     Because many countries refuse to even a partial ban on whale

                 hunting, some species of whales are nearing extinction.

 

五、範文解說

             2004年的 大學學測英文科的非選擇題以三格連環漫畫出題畫中主角在

             上週的英文課中” (in the English class last week) 睡著了並夢見自己在2005

             成為英文教師下面有一篇在報上公佈的範文寫得非常好現就其優點

             說明

 

              In the English class last week, something interesting happened to me. 

           Because I had sat up until very late the previous night, preparing for    

           the approaching Basic Proficiency Test, I was too tired to focus on the 

           English teacher’s lecture on Lesson 30: “We Are the World.” Gradually 

           I dozed off and a sound dream in which I dreamed of becoming an 

           English teacher teaching grammar with painstaking effort while  

           some of the students slept like a log in front of me. I was so furious 

           that I shouted to them “Wake up!” It was at this very moment that 

           I heard my teacher shouting “Wake up!” to me. I woke up from my 

           dream and found the teacher standing before me with angry facial 

           expressions. I felt very embarrassed. Never will I forget this interesting 

           school episode happening on January 15, 2005.

         

            上文除內容生動切題就其英文寫作能力 Writing Competency 的刻意表現

             Intentionally Shown 的部份說明如下

   

            1. 句子連結: (1) 簡單句 - 4複雜句 – 4  

                                     (2) 副詞子句 – 3形容子句 – 1

                                     (3) It 虛字 – 1倒裝句 – 1

             2. 詞類變化: (1) 分詞在名詞前 – 3

          (2) 分詞在名詞後 – 4

          (3) 句子後 – 1個

              3. 多用成語: (1) 句型 too … to +V,  so … that

                                              (2) 兩字動詞 sit up, prepare for, focus on, doze off, 

                                                  dream of, wake up.

                                       (3) 成語 sleep like a log, with angry facial expressions.

 

六、結論

                                                  一篇好的英文 Writing除了針對題目 Topic 發揮 Develop更必須要表現出

                                                  Show 考生的英文文法 Grammar造句 Syntax修詞 Rhetoric 及字彙變化  

                                                  Range of vocabulary

                                                   所以學習英文寫作必從單字及文法著手學習單字時要注意詞類及用法

                                                  Usage學習文法時要注意造句及句型之各項文法規則學習寫作時除了要

                                                  針對題目外要注意多用慣用片語還要講求變化如此才能寫出好的文

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